, business and open access

Many researchers are publishing pre-prints at This is the networking platform for researchers certainly most used by members of the philosophy-department at Fribourg.
But what is exactly? What is it’s business model? And how does it compare to self-archiving repositories (such as philpapers or reroDoc)?

Here is an interesting critical blog-post on the subject by a researcher from LSE (but his personal opinion, not official LSE):

What does Academia_edu’s success mean for Open Access? The data-driven world of search engines and social networking

In short, the author explains that the business model is centered around exploiting the data collected from the usage of The data are sold to business R&D departments who would want to know, for example, which topic is trending among scientists in this domain or that. He urges that one should be attentive to a new way (a part from the now fairly known way practiced by the content “providers” Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Springer etc.) scientist’s mostly publicly funded work can be exploited by enterprises at not much additional cost for themselves. Whereas the editor’s business model is centered around providing paid access to content,’s (and Elsevier owned Mendely’s) business provides paid access to usage-data.

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OSO now 1196 e-books accessible in Fribourg

Our coverage of Oxford Scholarship Online: Philosophy has been extended and we now have every online-publication in Philosophy from Oxford University Press from February 2003 to January 2014. The total of available e-books amounts to 1196.

Go here -if you are on the network of the University.

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Bases de données / Datenbanken

Folgende Liste enthält alle Datenbanken in Philosophie, welche die Bibliotheken der Uni zur Verfügung stellen. Es gibt vier Arten von Datenbanken: Volltextsammlungen (e-book), bibliographische Datenbanken (Biblio-DB) z.B. für die thematische Suche nach Artikeln, elektronische Zeitschriftensammlungen und -zugänge (e-journal) sowie andere Datenbanken (Fact-DB).

La liste suivante contient toutes les bases de données utiles pour la philosophie que les bibliothèques de l’Université de Fribourg mettent à disposition. Quatre types de banques de données sont distinguées: les collections d’e-books (e-books), les bases de données bibliographiques (Biblio-DB) par exemple utile à la recherche d’articles par thème, les accès et collections de périodiques électroniques (e-journal) ainsi que d’autres types de bases de données regroupées sous le terme bases factuelles (Fact-DB).

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Rechte an digitalem Inhalt

In dieser Post werde ich nach und nach (ab 2.Feb.2015) Links auf Informationen über Rechte an digitalem Inhalt zusammentragen.
Für Studierende und Forschende tauchen Fragen zu diesem Thema immer wieder auf. Z.B. als:

– Welche Texte sind legal ins Netz gestellt worden? Welche Scans kann ich selbst legal verteilen, welche nicht? Was ist der Status der Texte auf googlebooks, project gutenberg,, gallica, EEBO (Early English Books Online.
– was heisst “gemeinfrei”, “lizenzfrei”, “freie Lizenz”
– Was sind creative commons lizenzen und wie kann ich die meinen eigenen Publikationen zuordnen?

Dies ist eine “rolling post” die nach und nach erweitert wird, wann immer ich auf Informationen dazu stosse.

Hier ein erster Link zu einem Blog, der ganz allgemeine Informationen zum (deutschen – aber die meisten Urheberrechte sind ähnlich) Urheberrecht und Netzinhalt aller Art (Bilder, Musik, Bücher, Programme,…) enthält. Hier die Kategorie “Bücher und Audiobücher”:

*******Zusatz 22.5.2015****
Hier nun ein praktischer Hinweis. Falls Sie etwas veröffentlichen, z.B. Text & Bild auf einem Blog wie diesem hier, können Sie eine creative-commons-Lizenz für Ihren Inhalt erstellen. Dies erlaubt es Ihnen, diese Inhalte unter sinnvollen Bedingungen zur Weiterverwendung freizugeben, z.B. können Sie erlauben, dass der Text nicht nur weiterveröffentlich werden darf, sondern dass er dabei auch abgeändert werden darf, dass die veränderte Veröffentlichung unter derselben Lizenz geschehen muss, dass kommerzielle Verwendung ausgeschlossen ist etc. Die genaue Lizenz können Sie anhand der Webseite erstellen. Die Lizenz ist weltweit gültig und Sie brauchen dazu keine NotarIn.

Nachdem man auf der Seite seine Lizenz gewählt hat, kann man den html-Code für die entsprechende Zeichen kopieren und in sein Dokument einfügen. Ich mache das hier mal gleich für diesen Beitrag:

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Das heisst diese Post kann weiterveröffentlich werden, abgeändert, muss mir zugeschrieben werden und darf nicht kommerziell genutzt werden.

Die creative-commons entspringen dem Grundgedanke der Allmende (commons), also einem Austausch, der auf gemeinsamer Nutzung (in dem Fall digitaler Inhalte) im Gegensatz zu Privatbesitz beruht. Hier ein paar Links zu diesem Thema:
Elinor Ostrom (wikipedia)
Tragik der Allmende (wikipedia) (Die Theorie aus den 1960ern, gegen welche Ostrom argumentiert hat)
Digitale Allmend (Verein)

******Zusatz 20.3.2019****

Hier nun der Link zum schweizerischen Kompetenzzentrum zu digitalem Recht. Die Seite enthält nützliche FAQ’s und Fallbesprechungen:

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Encyclopedia of Aesthetics, 2014-edition

I would like to indicate the purchase and arrival at BHAP of the 2nd Edition of the Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (ed. Michael Kelly, Oxford University Press 2014). This 6-volume-encyclopedia is an interesting reference work in aesthetics, the philosophy of art, the philosophy of culture, art theory, art criticism, art history. The contributors cover many different domains of expertise and are from many different “schools of thought”: analytic and continental aesthetics, critical theory and so on.

Link to the catalogue.

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Digital Philosophy is coming – InPhO

“Digital Philosophy” is a term created on the template of “Digital Humanities” (wikipedia-entry). VERY briefly: humanities with computers. For instance computer-aided textual analysis and everything else where computational methods can be applied in the humanities.
In this post, I want to very briefly present one particular project of digital humanities, more particularly digital philosophy!
The Indiana Philosophy Ontology.
“Ontology” here is not used in the philosophical sense, but in the computer- and information-science sense. Let’s see:
The Indiana Philosophy Ontology is an ongoing project, in which philosophical concepts will be organized in a dynamic “ontology”. This means that the different concepts populating philosophical discourse will be extracted from different sources (for now, I think it’s mainly the Standford Encyclopedia of Philosophy and also a little bit Philpapers) and put into relations to one another. These relations can be such things as “is an occurrence of”, “is a related term of”, “relates to thinker”, and so on. This is “dynamic”: it changes possibly a lot over time: new concepts are added, relations between concepts change.

In what sense is this digital? The extraction of the ontology is at least partly automated, i.e. information retrieval processes (such as text-mining, which is often (or always?) statistical) are applied to the sources. Even more importantly, the metacontent which is extracted in order to build the ontoloty is treated in such a fashion that it can be further used by humans as well as automated agents. Thus the ontology is of course built with an eye to current and future search engines, as well as to future not yet completely foreseeable uses of the metadata in new projects. Interoperability is an important aspect of computer ontologies. Not everything is digital though (just yet)! InPhO uses only mixed procedures relying on computers AND field-experts.

What’s the use of it? Even in a small research field such as philosophy, large amounts of texts are produced each year and the subject-terms, categories, keywords in terms of which philosophy is apprehended are quickly evolving, not to mention the relations between them, e.g. topics at one time unrelated can come to be seen as tightly related and vice-versa. Encyclopedias such as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy which use invited authors and employ a small amount of expert editors may improve on the older system of printed encyclopedias with similar editorial models. But with its continuing growth it is becoming difficult and labor intensive (SEP is free, as you know, funded by different agencies, libraries etc.) to produce cross-references, keywords and so on for the SEP. Thus the future lies probably in much more quickly evolving organizations of the philosophical content in keywords, categories and topics, which can be applied to SEP and other encyclopedias or similar projects, e.g. bibliographical databases such as PhilIndex or Philpapers, philosophy-webportals (do they still exist?), library catalogues, and so on.

Of course, as just mentioned, these developments are important also for the development of digital libraries. What is true of the old encyclopedias, that they cannot evolve quickly enough, that the cross-referencing is labor-intensive work, may be argued to be even more true of the old tools of the library to organize the content of a domain, namely classification systems, such as our “home-made CDU” in the BHAP, and subject-headings in the (online) catalogues -applied to texts manually by subjects librarians such as myself.

I have sometimes heard in conferences in the digital humanities, that such tools may come to influence the work of the researchers in the humanities to a much greater extent than before: Perhaps you will soon be programming tools to extract by statistical methods the next big philosophical claim from dynamic computer ontologies … or at least, you don’t need to rely solely on personal taste, the contingency of which departments you happen to be involved with, the influence and natural authority of your direct colleagues etc. in order to judiciously choose the topic of your PhD-thesis…

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Oxford Scholarship Online

Scholarly literature in philosophy from Oxford University Press. At the University of Fribourg you have currently access to 517 e-books out of a total of 1’533 in philosophy published by Oxford University Press. This access is the result of our buying packages over the past few years. These packages cover everything categorized as philosophy by Oxford University Press published on their online-Platform between 2008 and 2012. We recently closed a gap in this collection, adding the publications from 2010 (meaning the e-version was published in 2010; usually this coincides with the year of publication of the book). In 2010 books by David Chalmers, Jaegwon Kim, Galen Strawson and many others were published at Oxford University Press.

Oxford Scholarship Online is, of course, useful because it provides quick online access to the texts. The first version you see is the html version to be read online. Furthermore you can download pdf’s. Unfortunately you have to download each chapter of a book individually. Also, the quality of the layout of these pdf’s, their overall readability, is quite worse than the layout and readability of the book in paper, or a scan you would have made yourself of the book in paper. So, it has its critics, see e.g. here .

Whatever you think of these criticisms, please note, that we do have many of the books of our OSO collection still in paper version, here in Fribourg or in another institution of RERO.

From 2015 onwards we will buy individual e-books by a “pick&choose” method for the library, thus, at least for the time being, not continue buying whole packages or bundles. We may add, archival bundles of years before 2008, since their prices drop quickly and are quite reasonable. We will also still buy books from Oxford University Press in paper. It will be necessary for us to evaluate this policy later on, also taking into account problems of accessibility to e-books. At the moment many potential users do still not know how to access our e-books or that they even exist. There are still problems of visibility of our electronic resources in general, and e-books in particular, at the University of Fribourg.

Please leave your thoughts on the subject in the comments below!

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110 Free Philosophy eBooks

On the following site you will find 110 (for now) e-books in philosophy. They are (due to copyright issues, of course) mostly more than 50 years old and put together from varying sources. Some are pdf’s from scans of the book itself, others are in html or e-pub and there are even versions for kindles and i-pads. Quality varies greatly. Some are links to project-gutenberg files which are of good quality, some pretty wild scans, others University e-books of excellent quality. For now you have many classics such as Hume’s Treatise, Kant’s Critique of pure reason, also Aristotle, Plato, Wittgenstein, Russell, Heidegger, Arendt and so on.

Here is the link

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Petition gegen SNF-Förderstrategie, Buch in geisteswissenschaftlichen Subventionsverlagen etc.

Kürzlich zikulierte am Departement die von Subventionsverlagen lancierte Petition gegen die Neuregelung der Publikationsförderung beim FNS. Dazu ist in der NZZ ein interessanter Artikel erschienen.

Hier zum Artikel der NZZ.

Hier eine Übersicht über die Debattenbeiträge auf dem Forschungsförderungsblog der Uni St Gallen.

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E-books in philosophy in Fribourg: overview and access

The offer of e-books gets more and more substantial. It is still less than a 1000 e-books (compared to a roughly estimated 40’ooo books at the BCU and BHAP). But as their number grows it is important to make them visible for potential readers. Not all of them are in the catalogue Rero, so they can only be found by doing a special research (but see possibility of using explore below).

There are already a good number of paid e-books available in philosophy for students and staff. There are many different kinds of e-books, different suppliers/publishers and different ways to access them. This is a short overview of the possibilities.

I will start with a list in which I group the different packages of e-books according to the general kinds of e-book. The general kinds are “research monographs”, “complete works”, “companions and handbooks” and “encyclopedias”.

  1. Research monographs: Oxford Scholarship Online (ca. 400 e-books), Isidore (mainly free e-books, theses etc. from France)
  2. Complete Works: Albertus Magnus Institute, Intelex Past Masters, Aristoteles Latinus Database
  3. Companions and handbooks: Blackwell Reference Online, Cambridge Companions Online, Oxford Handbooks Online
  4. Encyclopedias: International Encyclopedia of Ethics, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Oxford Reference Online

I have based this list on the information from BCU, Fribourg homepage > Ressources > Bases de données > domaine: sciences humaines; discipline: philosophie ; type: E-books

You get to the following list:

Screenshot from BCU-Ressources

This provides also the first way to access the e-books.

Another access is: BCU, Fribourg homepage > Ressources > Menu complet > E-books. There you can make a search by publisher.


Another way to access the e-books is via explore:

My tests for Oxford University Press for this access were all successful. The advantage of explore is that you also find the hardcopies in the library-catalogue.

Lastly, it is of course always possible to go on the site of the ressource directly, e.g. oxford scholarship online. When you are on the university network, the books the university paid for are freely accessible.

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